Statistics Class 11
Statistics Class 11 Notes
In statistics class 11, the importance of statistics in studying the measures of dispersion and the methods of calculating the grouped and ungrouped data has been explained. In applied mathematics, statistics is a branch that deals with the collection, organization and interpretation of data. It is similar to the study of the probability of events occurring based on the collection of data or the known quantities of data. Some of the concepts with examples and the scope of the statistics are explained in the Class 11 maths chapter 15 Statistics.
Statistics Class 11 Chapter 15 Concepts
The concepts covered in this chapter 15 of Class 11 Statistics are:
- Introduction
- Measures of Dispersion
- Range
- Mean Deviation
- Variance and Standard Deviation
- Analysis of Frequency Distributions
Let’s have a look at the brief explanation of all these concepts with examples given below:
A measure of central tendency gives us a rough idea of wherever data points are centred. However, to better understand the data, we should know how the data are scattered or how much they are bunched around a measure of central tendency. However, the measures of central tendency are not adequate to give exhaustive information about a given data. Variability is another essential factor that is expected to be studied in statistics. Similar to the measures of central tendency, we need to have a unique number that describes the variability, and this single number is called a measure of dispersion. In this chapter, you will learn some of the important measures of dispersion and the methods for calculating these measured for both ungrouped and grouped data.
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Measures of Dispersion
The dispersion or scatter in the data is measured based on the observations and the types of the measure of central tendency. The different types of measures of dispersion are:
- Range
- Quartile deviation
- Mean deviation
- Standard deviation.
In Class 11 statistics, you get an explicit knowledge of all the measures of dispersion except quartile deviation, which will be studied in your higher classes.
Range
The range is the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value
Range = Maximum Value – Minimum Value
Click here to understand the range in a better way.
Mean Deviation
Mean deviation is the basic measure of deviations from value, and the value is generally a mean value or a median value. In order to find out the mean deviation, first take the mean of deviation for the observations from value is d = x – a Here x is the observation, and a is the fixed value.
The basic formula to find out the mean deviation is
Mean Deviation = Sum of absolute values of deviations from ‘a’ / Number of observations
To learn more about mean deviation, visit here.
Mean Deviation for Ungrouped Data
Calculation of mean deviation for ungrouped data involves the following steps :
Let us assume the observations x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3}, …..x_{n}
Step 1: Calculate the central tendency measures to find the mean deviation and let it be ‘a’.
Step 2: Find the deviation of x_{i }from a, i.e., x_{1} – a, x_{2}– a, x_{3} – a,. . . , x_{n}– a
Step 3: Find the absolute values of the deviations, i.e., | x_{1} – a |, | x_{2}– a |, |x_{3} – a|,. . . ,|x_{n}– a| and drop the minus sign (–), if it is there,
Step 4: calculate the mean of the absolute values of the deviations. This mean obtained is the mean deviation about a, i.e.,
[latex]M.D (a)= \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}\left |x_{i}-a \right |}{n}[/latex][latex]M.D (\bar{x})= \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}\left |x_{i}-\bar{x} \right |}{n}[/latex], where [latex]\bar{x}[/latex] = Mean
[latex]M.D (M)= \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}\left |x_{i}-M \right |}{n}[/latex], Where M = Median
Mean Deviation for Grouped Data
The data can be grouped into two ways namely,
- Discrete frequency distribution
- Continuous frequency distribution
The methods of finding the mean deviation for both the types are given below
Discrete Frequency Distribution
Here, the given data consist of n distinct values x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3},….x_{n }has frequencies f_{1}, f_{2}, f_{3},….f_{n }respectively. This data is represented in the tabular form as and is called discrete frequency distribution, and the data are given below
x | x_{1} | x_{2} | x_{3} | …… | x_{n} |
f | f_{1} | f_{2} | f_{3} | …… | f_{n} |
Mean Deviation About Mean
First find the mean [latex]\bar{x}[/latex], using the given formula :
[latex]\bar{x}=\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_{i}f_{i}}{\sum_{i=1}^{n}f_{i}}=\frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_{i}f_{i}[/latex]Where the numerator denotes the sum of products of observations x_{i} with the respective frequencies f_{i} and the denominator denotes the sum of frequencies.
Now take the absolute values, [latex]\left | x_{i}-\bar{x} \right |[/latex] , for all i = 1, 2, 3, ..n
Therefore, the required mean deviation about the mean is given by
[latex]M.D(\bar{x})=\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}f_{i}\left | x_{i}-\bar{x} \right |}{\sum_{i=1}^{n}f_{i}}=\frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^{n}f_{i}\left | x_{i}-\bar{x} \right |[/latex]Mean Deviation About Median
To find the mean deviation about the median for the given discrete frequency distribution. First arrange the observation in ascending order to get cumulative frequency which is equal to or greater than N/2, where N is the sum of the frequencies.
Therefore, the mean deviation for median is given by,
[latex]M.D(M)= \frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^{n}f_{i}\left | x_{i}-M \right |[/latex]Also, check:
- Mean deviation about Median
- Mean absolute deviation
- Mean deviation for Continuous frequency distribution
- Mean deviation Calculator
Continuous Frequency Distribution
To find the mean deviation for the continuous frequency distribution, assume that the frequency in each class is centred at its midpoint. After finding the midpoint, proceed further to find the mean deviation similar to the discrete frequency distribution.
Standard Deviation
The positive square root of the variance is called standard deviation (S.D) and it is denoted by the symbol,