Area and Perimeter
Area and perimeter, in Maths, are the two important properties of two-dimensional shapes. Perimeter defines the distance of the boundary of the shape whereas area explains the region occupied by it.
Area and Perimeter is an important topic in Mathematics, which is used in everyday life. This is applicable to any shape and size whether it is regular or irregular. Every shape has its own area and perimeter formula. You must have learned about different shapes such as triangle, square, rectangle, circle, sphere, etc. The area and perimeter of all shapes are explained here.
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What is Area?
The area is the region bounded by the shape of an object. The space covered by the figure or any two-dimensional geometric shape, in a plane, is the area of the shape. The area of all the shapes depends upon their dimensions and properties. Different shapes have different areas. The area of the square is different from the area of a kite.
If two objects have a similar shape then it’s not necessary that the area covered by them will be equal unless and until the dimensions of both shapes are also equal. Suppose, there are two rectangle boxes, with length as L1 and L2 and breadth as B1 and B2. So the areas of both the rectangular boxes, say A1 and A2 will be equal only if L1=L2 and B1=B2.
What is Perimeter?
Perimeter of a shape is defined as the total distance around the shape. Basically, perimeter is the length of any shape if it is expanded in a linear form. A perimeter is a total distance that encompasses a shape, in a 2d plane. The perimeter of different shapes can match in length with each other depending upon their dimensions.
What is the Difference Between Area and Perimeter?
Here is the list of differences between area and perimeter:
|Area is the region occupied by a shape||Perimeter is total distance covered by the boundary of a shape|
|Area is measured in square units (m2, cm2, in2, etc.)||Perimeter is measured in units (m, cm, in, feet, etc.)|
|Example: Area of rectangular ground is equal to product of its length and breadth.||Example: Perimeter of a rectangular ground is equal to sum of all its four boundaries, i.e, 2(length + breadth).|
Area and Perimeter For all Shapes
There are many types of shapes. The most common ones are Square, Triangle, Rectangle, Circle etc. To know the area and perimeter of all these, we need different formulas.
Perimeter and Area of a Rectangle
A rectangle is a figure/shape with opposite sides equal and all angles equal to 90 degrees. The area of the rectangle is the space covered by it in an XY plane.
Perimeter and Area of a Square
A Square is a figure/shape with all four sides equal and all angles equal to 90 degrees. The area of the square is the space occupied by the square in a 2D plane and its perimeter is the distance covered on the outer line.
where a is the length of the side of the square.
Perimeter and Area of Triangle
The triangle has three sides. Therefore, the perimeter of any given triangle, whether it is scalene, isosceles or equilateral, will be equal to the sum of the length of all three sides. And the area of any triangle is the space occupied by it in a plane.
Area and Circumference of Circle
Area of a circle is the region occupied by it in a plane.
In case of a circle, the distance of the outer line of the circle is called the circumference.
Area and Perimeter Formulas
Here is the list of the area and perimeter for different figures in a tabular form. Students can use this table to solve problems based on the formulas given here.
|Circle||A = π × r2||Circumference = 2πr||r = radius of the circle|
|Triangle||A = ½ × b × h||S = a+b+c||b = base
h = height
a,b and c are the sides of the triangle
|Square||A = a2||P = 4a||a = length of side|
|Rectangle||A = l × w||P = 2(l + w)||l = length
w = width
|Parallelogram||A = b × h||P = 2(a+b)||a = side
Applications of Area and Perimeter
We know that the area is basically the space covered by these shapes and perimeter is the distance around the shape. If you want to paint the walls of your new home, you need to know the area to calculate the quantity of paint required and cost for the same.
For example, to fence the garden in your house, the length required of the material for fencing is the perimeter of the garden. If it’s a square garden with each side as a cm then the perimeter would be 4a cm. The area is the space contained in the shape or the given figure. It is calculated in square units. Suppose you want to fix tiles in your new home, you need to know the area of the floor to know the no. of tiles required to cover the whole floor. In this article, let us have a look at the formula for area and perimeter of some basic shapes with diagrams and examples.
Area and Perimeter for Grade 4
In Class 4, we will come across the area and perimeter formulas for square and rectangle shapes. Here, the sides of rectangle are measured in inches or feet or yard. Let us see an example.
Example: Find the area of a rectangle with length and width equal to 7ft and 5ft, respectively.
Length = 7ft & Width = 5ft
Area of rectangle = Length x Width
= 7ft x 5ft
= 35 ft2
|Area Related Articles||Perimeter Related articles|
|Area of a Circle||Circumference of a Circle|
|Area of Triangle||Perimeter of Triangle|
|Area of Rectangle||Perimeter of Rectangle|
|Area Of A Square||Perimeter of Square|
|Area of Parallelogram||Perimeter of a Parallelogram|
Solved Examples on Area and Perimeter
Here are some solved examples based on the formulas of the area as well as perimeter of different shapes.
If the radius of a circle is 21cm. Find its area and circumference.
Given, radius = 21cm
Therefore, Area = π × r2
A = 22/7 × 21 × 21
A = 1386 sq.cm.
Circumference, C = 2πr
C = 2 x 22/7 x 21 = 132 cm
If the length of the side of a square is 11cm. Then find its area and also find the total length of its boundary.
Given, length of the side, a = 11 cm
Area = a2 = 112 = 121 sq.cm
Total length of its boundary, Perimeter = 4a = 4 x 11 = 44 sq.cm.
The length of rectangular field is 12m and width is 10m. Find the area of the field along with its perimeter.
Given, Length = 12m
Width = 10m
Therefore, Area = length x width = 12 x 10 = 120 sq.m.
Perimeter = 2 (length + width) = 2 x (12 + 10) = 2 x 22 = 44 m.
Practice Problems (Worksheets)
Solve the questions here based on area and perimeter of different shapes.
- If a square has area 625 sq.m., then find its perimeter.
- The length and width of a rectangle are 11.5 cm and 8.8 cm, respectively. Find its area and perimeter.
- If the height of a triangle is 19cm and its base length is 12cm. Find the area.
- The perimeter of an equilateral triangle is 21cm. Find its area.
- A parallelogram has base length of 16cm and the distance between the base and its opposite side is 7.5cm. Find its area.
Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs
What is the difference between area and perimeter?
The unit of area is given by square unit or unit2 and unit of perimeter is same as the unit.
What is the formula for perimeter?
Perimeter = Sum of all sides
What is the area and perimeter of a circle?
Area of circle is πr2
Perimeter or circumference of circle is 2πr.
What is the perimeter and area example?
Area of square = side2 = 22 = 4cm2
Perimeter of square = sum of all sides = 2+2+2+2 = 8
What is the formula for area of rectangle?
Area = Length x Breadth