# Indeterminate Forms

The term “indeterminate” means an unknown value. The **indeterminate form** is a Mathematical expression that means that we cannot be able to determine the original value even after the substitution of the limits. In this article, we are going to discuss what is the indeterminate form of limits, different types of indeterminate forms in algebraic expressions with examples.

**Table of contents:**

- Definition
- Indeterminate Forms of Limits
- List of Indeterminate Forms
- Evaluation of Indeterminate Form
- Example
- FAQs

## What is Indeterminate Form?

In Mathematics, we cannot be able to find solutions for some form of Mathematical expressions. Such expressions are called indeterminate forms. In most of the cases, the indeterminate form occurs while taking the ratio of two functions, such that both of the functions approaches zero in the limit. Such cases are called “indeterminate form 0/0”. Similarly, the indeterminate form can be obtained in addition, subtraction, multiplication, exponential operations also.

## Indeterminate Forms of Limits

Some forms of limits are called indeterminate if the limiting behaviour of individual parts of the given expression is not able to determine the overall limit.

If we have the limits like, \(\lim_{x\rightarrow 0}f(x) = \lim_{x\rightarrow 0}g(x) = 0,\), then \(\lim_{x\rightarrow 0}\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}\).

If the limits are applied for the given function, then it becomes 0/0, which is known as indeterminate forms.

In Mathematics, there are seven indeterminate forms that include 0, 1 and ∞, They are

0/0, 0×∞,∞/∞, ∞ −∞, ∞^{0}, 0^{0}, \(1^{\infty }\)

Also, read: |

## Indeterminate Forms List

Some of the indeterminate forms with conditions and transformation are given below:

Indeterminate form |
Conditions |

0/0 | \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x) = 0, \lim_{x\rightarrow c}g(x) = 0\) |

∞/∞ | \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)= \infty , \lim_{x\rightarrow c }g(x) = \infty\) |

0.∞ | \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)= 0 , \lim_{x\rightarrow c }g(x) = \infty\) |

∞-∞ | \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)= 1 , \lim_{x\rightarrow c }g(x) = \infty\) |

0^{0} |
\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)=0^{+} , \lim_{x\rightarrow c }g(x) = 0\) |

1^{∞} |
\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)= \infty , \lim_{x\rightarrow c }g(x) = \infty\) |

∞^{0} |
\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)= \infty , \lim_{x\rightarrow c }g(x) = 0\) |

Now let us discuss these forms one by one.

### Indeterminate Form 1

0/0

**Condition: **

**Transformation:**

Transformation to ∞/∞.

Then it becomes, \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}\frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = \lim_{x\rightarrow c}\frac{1/g(x)}{1/f(x)}\)

### Indeterminate Form 2

∞/∞

**Condition: **

**Transformation:**

Transformation to 0/0

Then it becomes, \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}\frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = \lim_{x\rightarrow c}\frac{1/g(x)}{1/f(x)}\)

### Indeterminate Form 3

0 x ∞

**Condition: **

**Transformation:**

Transformation to 0/0

Then it becomes, \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)g(x)= \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{f(x)}{1/g(x)}\)

Transformation to ∞/∞.

It becomes, \(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)g(x)= \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{g(x)}{1/f(x)}\)

### Indeterminate Form 4

\(1^{\infty }\)**Condition: **

**Transformation:**

Transformation to 0/0

Then it becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)^{g(x)}=exp \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{ln f(x)}{1/g(x)}\)

Transformation to ∞/∞.

It becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)^{g(x)}= \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{g(x)}{1/ ln f(x)}\)

### Indeterminate Form 5

0^{0}

**Condition: **

**Transformation:**

Transformation to 0/0

Then it becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)^{g(x)}=\lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{g(x)}{1/ ln f(x)}\)

Transformation to ∞/∞.

It becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)^{g(x)}= \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{ ln f(x)}{1/ g(x)}\)

### Indeterminate Form 6

∞^{0}

**Condition: **

**Transformation:**

Transformation to 0/0

Then it becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)^{g(x)}=\lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{g(x)}{1/ ln f(x)}\)

Transformation to ∞/∞.

It becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}f(x)^{g(x)}= \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{ ln f(x)}{1/ g(x)}\)

### Indeterminate Form 7

∞ – ∞

**Condition: **

**Transformation:**

Transformation to 0/0

Then it becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}(f(x)-g(x))= \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{[1/g(x)]-[1/f(x)]}{1/[f(x)g(x)]}\)

Transformation to ∞/∞.

It becomes,\(\lim_{x\rightarrow c}(f(x)-g(x))= \lim_{x\rightarrow c }\frac{e^{f(x)}}{e^{g(x)}}\)

## How to Evaluate Indeterminate Forms?

There are three methods used to evaluate indeterminate forms. They are:

**Factoring Method (0/0 form)**

In the factoring method, the expressions are factored to their maximum simplest form. After that, the limit value should be substituted.

**L’Hospital’s R****ule** (0/0 or ∞/∞ form)

In this method, the derivative of each term is taken in each step successively until at least one of the terms becomes free of the variable. It means that at least one term becomes constant.

**Division of Each Term by Highest Power of Variable (∞/∞ form)**

In this method, each term in numerator and denominator is divided by the variable of the highest power in the expression, and then, the limit value is obtained.

## Indeterminate Forms Example

**Question:** Evaluate \(\lim_{x\rightarrow \infty }\frac{sin 2x}{e^{x}+ x}\)

**Solution**:

Given: \(\lim_{x\rightarrow \infty }\frac{sin 2x}{e^{x}+ x}\)

Let f(x) = sin 2(x) and g(x) = e^{x. }+ x

Therefore, f’(x) = 2 cos 2x , g’(x) = e^{x} + 1

Therefore, \(\lim_{x\rightarrow 0 }\frac{f'(x)}{g'(x)}= \lim_{x\rightarrow 0}\frac{2 cos 2x}{e^{x}+1}\)

Now, substitute the limits, it becomes

= 2 cos(0)/ e^{0} + 1

= 2/ 2 = 1

Therefore, \(\lim_{x\rightarrow \infty }\frac{sin 2x}{e^{x}+ x} = 1\)

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## Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

### Which are indeterminate forms?

### How many indeterminate forms are there?

0/0, 0×∞, ∞/∞, ∞ − ∞, ∞^0, 0^0, and 1^∞

### What is meant by an indeterminate form?

### How do you determine indeterminate form?

If lim_{x→0} f(x) = lim_{x→0} g(x), then lim_{x→0) f(x)/g(x)

If the limits are applied, then it becomes 0/0, which is known as indeterminate form.