# Perfect Numbers

## What are the Perfect Numbers?

**Definition:** A Perfect Number N is defined as any positive integer where the sum of its divisors minus the number itself equals the number. The first few of these, already known to the ancient Greeks, are 6, 28, 496, and 8128.

A Perfect Number “n”, is a positive integer which is equal to the sum of its factors, excluding “n” itself.

Euclid, over two thousand years ago, showed that all even perfect numbers can be represented by,

**N = 2 ^{p-1}(2^{p} -1) where p is a prime for which 2^{p} -1 is a Mersenne prime.**

That is, we have an even Perfect Number of the form N whenever the Mersenne Number 2^{p} -1 is a prime number. Undoubtedly Mersenne was familiar with Euclid’s book in coming up with his primes.

### Perfect Number Table:

The following gives a table of the first nine Mersenne Primes and Perfect Numbers

Prime, p | Mersenne Prime, 2^{p} -1 |
Perfect Number, 2^{p-1}(2^{p} -1) |
---|---|---|

2 | 3 | 6 |

3 | 7 | 28 |

5 | 31 | 496 |

7 | 127 | 8128 |

13 | 8191 | 33550336 |

17 | 131071 | 8589869056 |

19 | 524287 | 137438691328 |

31 | 2147483647 | 2305843008139952128 |

61 | 2305843009213693951 | 2658455991569831744654692615953842176 |

### History of Perfect Number

It is not known when Perfect Numbers were first discovered, or when they were studied, it is thought that they may even have been known to the Egyptians, and may have even been known before. Although the ancient mathematicians knew of the existence of Perfect Numbers, it was the Greeks who took a keen interest in them, especially Pythagoras and his followers (O’Connor and Robertson, 2004).

The Pythagoreans found the number 6 interesting (more for its mystical and numerological properties than for any mathematical significance), as it is the sum of its proper factors, i.e. 6 = 1 + 2 + 3 This is the smallest Perfect Number, the next being 28 (Burton, 1980).

Though the Pythagoreans were interested in the occult properties of Perfect Numbers, they did little of mathematical significance with them. It was around 300 BC, when Euclid wrote his Elements that the first real result was made. Although Euclid concentrated on Geometry, many number theory results can be found in his text (Burton, 1980).

We shall consider Euclid’s result in a moment, but first, let’s define Perfect Numbers more broadly. There are numerous ways to define Perfect Numbers, the early definitions being given in terms of aliquot parts. The author defines: **A Perfect Number n, is a positive integer which is equal to the sum of its factors, excluding n itself.**

**Also Check: **Euclidean Geometry

### Questions Based on Perfect Number

**Question 1: **Verify that 28 is a perfect number.

**Question 2:** Verify in the case 18 = 2 · 3 ^{2} = p^{ k} q^{ l} that the sum σ(n) of all divisors satisfies the formula

σ(n) = (1+P+P^{2}+…P^{k})(1+q+q^{2}+…q^{l})

## Frequently Asked Questions

### What are the Perfect Numbers?

A perfect number is defined as a positive integer which is equal to the sum of its positive divisors, excluding the number itself.

### Which is the Smallest Perfect Number?

The smallest perfect number is 6, which is the sum of 1, 2, and 3.

### How Many Perfect Numbers are there and What are the Perfect Numbers from 1 to 100?

There are around 51 known perfect numbers. There are only 2 perfect numbers from 1 to 100 which are 6 and 28. The latest perfect number was discovered in 2018 which has 49,724,095 digits.

### What are the First 5 Perfect Numbers?

The first 5 perfect numbers are 6, 28, 496, 8128, and 33550336.