Roman Numerals
Roman Numerals is a special kind of numerical notations that were earlier used by the Romans. The Roman numeral is an additive and subtractive system in which letters are used to denote certain base numbers and arbitrary numbers in the number system. An example of a roman numeral is XLVII which is equivalent to 47 in numeric form. Roman numerals are denoted using a different combination of symbols, that include English alphabets. For example, 5 in roman numeral is denoted by V. It has wide applications in naming anything such as Class I, Class II, Class X, etc.
Let us learn roman numerals in detail in this article.
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What are Roman Numerals?
Roman numerals is an ancient number system that is still used in many places. In roman numerals, alphabets are used to represent the fixed positive numbers. These roman numerals are I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X that represents 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 respectively.
After 10, the roman numerals are followed by XI for 11, XII for 12, XII for 13, … till XX for 20. The most common roman numerals that are presently used to represent the basic numbers are given in the table below.
I | V | X | L | C | D | M |
1 | 5 | 10 | 50 | 100 | 500 | 1000 |
Roman Numerals Chart (1 to 1000)
Below is the chart for roman numerals that shows the roman numerals from 1 to 1000 such as for 1, 2, 3, …, 10, 11, 20, 30, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. Using the chart, we can easily write roman numbers from 1 to 1000.
Students can download the pdf of the roman numerals chart for free from the link given below.
Roman Numerals 1 to 100
Following is the list of Roman numerals or Roman numbers from 1 to 100. There are certain rules to write the roman letters from 1 to 100, which are explained here.
Number | Roman
Numeral |
Number | Roman
Numeral |
Number | Roman
Numeral |
Number | Roman
Numeral |
Number | Roman
Numeral |
1 | I | 21 | XXI | 41 | XLI | 61 | LXI | 81 | LXXXI |
2 | II | 22 | XXII | 42 | XLII | 62 | LXII | 82 | LXXXII |
3 | III | 23 | XXIII | 43 | XLIII | 63 | LXIII | 83 | LXXXIII |
4 | IV | 24 | XXIV | 44 | XLIV | 64 | LXIV | 84 | LXXXIV |
5 | V | 25 | XXV | 45 | XLV | 65 | LXV | 85 | LXXXV |
6 | VI | 26 | XXVI | 46 | XLVI | 66 | LXVI | 86 | LXXXVI |
7 | VII | 27 | XXVII | 47 | XLVII | 67 | LXVII | 87 | LXXXVII |
8 | VIII | 28 | XXVIII | 48 | XLVIII | 68 | LXVIII | 88 | LXXXVIII |
9 | IX | 29 | XXIX | 49 | XLIX | 69 | LXIX | 89 | LXXXIX |
10 | X | 30 | XXX | 50 | L | 70 | LXX | 90 | XC |
11 | XI | 31 | XXXI | 51 | LI | 71 | LXXI | 91 | XCI |
12 | XII | 32 | XXXII | 52 | LII | 72 | LXXII | 92 | XCII |
13 | XIII | 33 | XXXIII | 53 | LIII | 73 | LXXIII | 93 | XCIII |
14 | XIV | 34 | XXXIV | 54 | LIV | 74 | LXXIV | 94 | XCIV |
15 | XV | 35 | XXXV | 55 | LV | 75 | LXXV | 95 | XCV |
16 | XVI | 36 | XXXVI | 56 | LVI | 76 | LXXVI | 96 | XCVI |
17 | XVII | 37 | XXXVII | 57 | LVII | 77 | LXXVII | 97 | XCVII |
18 | XVIII | 38 | XXXVIII | 58 | LVIII | 78 | LXXVIII | 98 | XCVIII |
19 | XIX | 39 | XXXIX | 59 | LIX | 79 | LXXIX | 99 | XCIX |
20 | XX | 40 | XL | 60 | LX | 80 | LXXX | 100 | C |
Students can download the pdf of roman numerals from 1 to 100 for free from the link given below.
Roman Numerals 100 to 1000
After practising the above list, you will be able to find the list of roman numerals from 100 to 1000 as well.
Number | Roman Numerals | Evaluation |
100 | C | 100 |
200 | CC | 100+100 |
300 | CCC | 100+100+100 |
400 | CD | 500-100 |
500 | D | 500 |
600 | DC | 500+100 |
700 | DCC | 500+100+100 |
800 | DCCC | 500+100+100+100 |
900 | CM | 1000-100 |
1000 | M | 1000 |
From the above table, we can see how the roman numerals have been calculated and expressed alphabetically.
Roman Letters
The roman letters are English alphabets but not all the alphabets are roman alphabets. There are 23 roman alphabets out of 26 English alphabets, in which J, U and W are not considered as roman alphabets. Hence, the roman alphabets are:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Y and Z. These roman letters are also called roman symbols.
For example, the year 2019 is written as MMXIX.
Rules to Write Roman Numerals
There are certain rules to be followed if we have to represent a number in roman numerals form. Please check the rules listed below.
- The value of the symbol is added to itself, as many times as it is repeated. (Eg. II – 2, XX – 20 and XXX – 30).
- A symbol can be repeated only for three times, for example XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.
- Symbols V, L, and D are never repeated.
- When a symbol of smaller value appears after a symbol of greater value, its values will be added. For Example- VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6.
- When a symbol of a smaller value appears before a greater value symbol, it will be subtracted. For Example- IX = X – I = 10 – 1 = 9.
- The symbols V, L, and D are never subtracted, as they are not written before a greater value symbol.
- The symbol I can be subtracted from V and X only and symbol X can be subtracted from symbols L, M and C only.
Converting Roman Numerals to Numbers
Rule 1: If one or more symbols are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount.
- VII = 7 (5 + 2 = 7)
- LXXX = 80 (50 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 80)
- MCCC = 1300 (1000+100 + 100 + 100 = 1300)
Rule 2: If a symbol is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount.
- CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)
- IX = 9 ( 10 – 1 = 9 )
- XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)
Rule 3: 1000 is replaced by a bar in the case of roman numerals
5000 | 10,000 | 50,000 | 100,000 | 500,000 | 1,000000 |
\(\bar{V}\) | \(\bar{X}\) | \(\bar{L}\) | \(\bar{C}\) | \(\bar{D}\) | \(\bar{M}\) |
Subtractive Rule of Roman Numerals
Write | Instead of | For the value of |
IV | IIII | 4 |
IX | VIIII | 9 |
XL | XXXX | 40 |
XC | LXXXX | 90 |
CD | CCCC | 400 |
M | DCCCC | 900 |
Video Lesson on Roman Numerals
Related Articles
Solved Examples on Roman Numerals
Example 1:
Write 69 in roman numerals.
Solution:
69 = 60 + 9
= (50 + 10) + 9
= LX + IX
= LXIX
Example 2:
Convert 1984 into the roman numeral.
Solution:
Break the number 1984 into 1000, 900, 80 and 4, then perform each conversion
As, 1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984
- 1000 = M
- 900 = CM
- 80 = LXXX
- 4 = IV
1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984,
So, 1984 = MCMLXXXIV
Example 3:
Convert 1774 to Roman Numerals.
Solution:
Break 1774 into 1000, 700, 70, 4 and then do each conversion
1000 = M
700 = DCC
70 = LXX
4 = IV
1000+700+70+4 = 1774,
Hence, 1774 = MDCCLXXIV
Example 4:
Compute the following roman numeral MXXII – LXX – LII.
Solution:
Given: MXXII – LXX – LII.
We know that MXXII = 1022, LXX = 70 and LII = 52.
Now, substitute the numbers in the Roman numeral letters, we get
MXXII – LXX – LII = 1022-70-52.
MXXII – LXX – LII = 900.
Hence, the number 90 in the Roman numeral is CM.
Practice Questions on Roman Numerals
- What is 500 in roman numeral form?
- Convert 1009 in roman numeral.
- Convert CXII in the number form.
- What is 11 in roman numerals?
- Write 6 in roman numeral
- Write 12 in roman numerals
- What is the number form of the Roman numeral CMXXIII?
Frequently Asked Questions on Roman Numerals
How do we write 100 in roman?
Write roman numerals from 1 to 10.
1 – I
2 – II
3 – III
4 – IV
5 – V
6 – VI
7 – VII
8 – VIII
9 – IX
10 – X
How do we write 200 in Roman?
How do you write roman numbers?
I – 1
V – 5
X – 10
L – 50
C – 100
D – 500
M – 1000
Using these alphabets, we can write all the roman numbers.
What does the roman number XC equal to?
How to evaluate 800 in roman numeral?
500 = D and 100 = C
Therefore,
800 = DCCC
What is the use of roman numerals?
For example, Sam came Ist in class.
Prince Charles III
Schools have Class 1st to Class Xth.